2010 Survey Results

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RESULTS OF THE SECOND NATIONWIDE 2010 SURVEY ON GROSS NATIONAL HAPPINESS

Background

The Royal Government of Bhutan in 2005 made the decision to develop GNH indicators in order to move the concept of GNH from the point of academic discourse to a measurable one.  The indicators aim to check whether programmes and policies are consistent with the values of GNH. The government intends to create conditions for situations to be better-assessed and for policy-makers to be better-informed in taking appropriate measures for actual implementation of GNH policy & programmes. So, since the beginning of 2005 the Centre for Bhutan Studies (CBS) involved nine researchers in developing the GNH indicators. In carrying out their responsibility to develop the indicators, apart from literature reviews CBS has had a continuous process of consultations at various levels ranging from academics to secretaries and directors of RGOB to Bhutanese citizens.

In order to set up the baseline indicators, the centre developed a detailed questionnaire (Click Here to Download the Questionnaire) covering the nine key areas considered crucial for reflecting the values and principles of GNH.  These key areas of GNH fall within the domains of psychological wellbeing, health, time use, education, culture, good governance, ecology, community vitality and living standards.

After the consultations with stakeholders such as the sector heads of various agencies and to some extent the general public, a pilot survey was conducted in 2006 with 350 respondents. In the conduct of conventional surveys, piloting questionnaires and participatory techniques is critical prior to undertaking the full survey. Questionnaires were pre-tested by the researchers to fully understand the potential problems in the entire survey administration process (e.g. structure, content, flow and length of the questionnaires) as well as the actual data collected. The pilot survey also allowed the researchers to test the relevance of questions and identify translation problems with the survey questions. Some of the questions asked during the pilot testing were whether each question measured, what it is supposed to measure, whether the words were understood by the respondents and whether all interviewers interpret the question in the same way. Information on the range of response choices used, completion time etc. were also explored.

The findings of the pilot survey were then shared with stakeholders. Further consultations and discussions were held at directorial level and secretarial level. The dialogue aimed to further revise the indicators.

After much improvement in the questionnaire, the Centre for Bhutan Studies carried out the First Gross National Happiness survey in December 2007. The survey questionnaire included about 750 variables which are objective, subjective, and open-ended in nature.  Due to shortcomings faced by the survey budget, it was carried out only in 12 districts with a sample size of 950: Dagana, Tsirang, Wangdiphodrang, Samtse, Zhemgang, Pemagatshel, Samdrupjongkhar, Trashigang, Tashiyangtse, Gasa, Haa and Thimphu. The enumerators usually took about 5-6 hours to complete a questionnaire. Besides the domain analysis, an overall GNH index was also developed. For the construction of GNH Index, a recently developed methodology of multidimensional poverty by Alkire and Foster (2007) has been adopted. The multidimensional poverty measurement focuses individuals as unit of analysis. This was one of the important aspects for considering the measurement as GNH too regards people centered development as the goal of the governance. Alkire in her working paper (2007) further describes this methodology to be operationally viable, easily replicable, and technically solid and above all has the ability to target the poor, track changes and guide policies. Although an index was computed from the data, it was not considered valid for any kind of analysis due to its limited sample size. Nevertheless, 2007 data have been effectively used to further review and refine the indicators.

GNH 2010 survey

The next survey then started in 2010 with the finalized questionnaire. CBS trained 55 enumerators for three weeks in order that the 2011 GNH survey would be completed efficiently and to a high standard. In this training enumerators were instructed in effective translation of the questionnaire from English to Dzongkha and other local dialects, and proper guidelines were provided regarding their responsibilities. The enumerators were divided into five teams and each team was lead by field supervisors from the centre. Each team comprised a supervisor and enumerators.

The survey started in April, 2010 and ended in December, 2010 taking nearly 9 months to complete the survey. It took on average 3 hours to complete a questionnaire. One of the major reasons for the extensive field time was the scattered population of the villages, which made it difficult for enumerators to interview more than one person in a day. Further, traveling to survey locations was time consuming due to the remoteness of the villages and the tough geographical terrain of the country.

Survey coverage

The initially targeted sample was 8700 and covered all 20 dzongkhags and almost all the gewogs. The sampling framework has been adopted from the BMIS survey developed by the National Statistics Bureau (NSB), which employed multi-stage sampling method. The final survey contains 7142 respondents with fully completed questionnaires.  The 2010 GNH survey is nationally representative and representative at a district level as well as by rural and urban.

The results can be viewed both in PDF and PowerPoint Files. The PowerPoint can also be viewed on the website itself with an added feature to view it on full screen mode.

Please scroll through to view the results which are presented district-wise with an overall national level result. Right Click on the link to Save As for download.

The analyses of the survey results is made possible through the gracious funding by the International Development Research Centre (IDRC).

 

National Level

PDF Version

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PowerPoint Version

National GNH 2010 Results
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Bumthang Dzongkhag

 

PDF Version

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PowerPoint Version

Bumthang GNH 2010 Results
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Chukha Dzongkhag

 

PDF Version

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PowerPoint Version

Chukha GNH 2010 Results
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Dagana Dzongkhag

 

PDF Version

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PowerPoint Version

Dagana GNH 2010 Results
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Gasa Dzongkhag

 

PDF Version

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PowerPoint Version

Gasa GNH 2010 Results
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Haa Dzongkhag

 

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PowerPoint Version

Haa GNH 2010 Results
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Lhuentse Dzongkhag

 

PDF Version

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PowerPoint Version

Lhuentse GNH 2010 Results
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Mongar Dzongkhag

 

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PowerPoint Version

Mongar GNH 2010 Results
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Paro Dzongkhag

 

PDF Version

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PowerPoint Version

Paro GNH 2010 Results
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Pemagathsel Dzongkhag

 

PDF Version

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PowerPoint Version

Pemagatshel GNH 2010 Results
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Punakha Dzongkhag

 

PDF Version

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PowerPoint Version

Punakha GNH 2010 Results
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Samdrup Jongkhar Dzongkhag

 

PDF Version

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PowerPoint Version

Samdrupjongkhar GNH 2010 Results
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Samtse Dzongkhag

 

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PowerPoint Version

Samtse GNH 2010 Results
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Sarpang Dzongkhag

 

PDF Version

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PowerPoint Version

Sarpang GNH 2010 Results
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Thimphu Dzongkhag

 

PDF Version

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PowerPoint Version

Thimphu GNH 2010 Results
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Trashigang Dzongkhag

 

PDF Version

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PowerPoint Version

Trashigang GNH 2010 Results
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Trashiyangtse Dzongkhag

 

PDF Version

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PowerPoint Version

Trashiyangtse GNH 2010 Results
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Trongsa Dzongkhag

 

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PowerPoint Version

Trongsa GNH 2010 Results
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Tsirang Dzongkhag

 

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PowerPoint Version

Tsirang GNH 2010 Results
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Wangdiphodrang Dzongkhag

 

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Zhemgang Dzongkhag

 

PDF Version

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PowerPoint Version