An Extensive Analysis of GNH Index

Overall, in 2010, 8.3% of Bhutanese people are ‘deeply happy’ according to GNH; 32.6% are ‘extensively happy’; 48.7% are ‘narrowly happy’, and 10.4% are ‘unhappy’. These four groups correspond to people who have achieved sufficiency in more than 77%, 66-76%, 50-65%, and less than half of the nine domains, respectively. The 2010 GNH Index uses the middle cutoff. Its value is 0.743 and shows that, overall, 40.9% of Bhutanese are identified as happy (meaning they are extensively or deeply happy), and the remaining 59.1% enjoy sufficiency in 56.6% of the domains on average. Recall that 48.7% of these are already narrowly happy, but are considered not-yet-happy for policy purposes. GNH gradients and indices are reported for each of the 20 districts by gender, by rural-urban areas, and, for illustrative purposes, by age and certain occupational categories.

The analysis has two parts: first, the wellbeing of the people who have been identified as ‘happy’ is examined to show the indicators in which they enjoy sufficiency. Some individual examples are presented to show that the ‘happiest’ people are diverse with respect to age, district, occupation, gender, and sufficiency profiles.

Second, the insufficiencies among those not identified as happy (or not-yet- happy) are examined. The GNH Index value can rise either by increasing the percentage of people who are happy, or the percentage in which not- yet-happy people enjoy sufficiency. This analysis clarifies areas where policy interventions or actions by other institutions could increase GNH. All tables used in this report, together with the survey instrument of questions used in the index and statistical analyses, are presented in the extensive appendices.

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A Short Guide to GNH Index

Bhutan’s GNH Index is a multidimensional measure and it is linked with a set of policy and programme screening tools so that it has practical applications. The GNH index is built from data drawn from periodic surveys which are representative by district, gender, age, rural-urban residence, etc. Representative sampling allows its results to be decomposed at various sub-national levels, and such disaggregated information can be examined and understood more by organizations and citizens for their uses. In the GNH Index, unlike certain concepts of happiness in current western literature, happiness is itself multidimensional – not measured only by subjective well-being, and not focused narrowly on happiness that begins and ends with oneself and is concerned for and with oneself. The pursuit of happiness is collective, though it can be experienced deeply personally. Different people can be happy in spite of their disparate circumstances and the options for diversity must be wide.

The GNH Index is meant to orient the people and the nation towards happiness, primarily by improving the conditions of not- yet-happy people. We can break apart the GNH Index to see where unhappiness is arising from and for whom. For policy action, the GNH Index enables the government and others to increase GNH in two ways.

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Provisional Findings of 2015 GNH Survey

This report provides preliminary findings of the 2015 GNH Survey while a full report is being prepared. The Centre for Bhutan Studies and GNH Research (CBS) carried out the survey between January and May 2015 with funding from the Royal Government of Bhutan (RGoB) and Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). The survey is designed to collect data on range of indicators on wellbeing and happiness.

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GROSS NATIONAL HAPPINESS: PRACTICE AND MEASUREMENT

GROSS NATIONAL HAPPINESS: PRACTICE AND MEASUREMENT

Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Gross National Happiness

Edited by Dasho Karma Ura and Dorji Penjore

This publication is the proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Gross National Happiness held in Thimphu, Bhutan, from 24 to 26 November 2008, against the backdrop of the global financial crisis. The conference which attracted 90 participants from 25 countries and five continents was attended by an average of 300 participants and observers. With the theme ‘Practice and Measurement’, the conference could not be held at a better place and time than Bhutan, the birthplace of GNH, and a time when the world is questioning the conventional growth model and its measurement system.

A total of 48 papers were presented. Almost all papers have been categorised to fit into one of the nine domains of Gross National Happiness: i. Psychological Wellbeing; ii. Time Use and Balance; iii. Cultural Diversity and Resilience; iv. Community Vitality; v. Ecological Diversity and Resilience; vi. Good Governance; vii. Health; viii. Education; and ix. Living Standard. Papers related to measuring progress and development of alternative measure of wellbeing (Measurement), and those related to carrying the GNH forward into global network and development of innovative ideas for implementing GNH (The Way Forward) constitute two separate parts.

The book is uploaded by chapters for easier and quicker download. The articles will begin downloading when you click on the title of the articles that you want.

Sl.No. Content Author

Page no.

0 Cover and Copyright page  
0 Introduction

vi

1 Keynote Address His Excellency Jigmi Y Thinley, Hon’ble Prime Minister of Bhutan

1

2 Remarks Nicholas Rossellini, Resident Coordinator of UN System in Bhutan

9


Measurement
3 Measuring Progress Towards GNH: From GNH Indicators to GNH National Accounts? Ronald Colman

15

4 The Analysis of Results of Research into ‘The Ideal Society’ in Japan, Sweden and Bhutan – Using the Indicators of Human Satisfaction Measure Terue Ohashi

49

5 The Global Project on Measuring the Progress of Societies: A global movement for a global challenge Jon Hall

87

6 Creating National Accounts of Wellbeing; a parallel process to GNH Nic Marks

102


Psychological Wellbeing
 7 Can We Have Both Psychological and Ecological Wellbeing George Burns

127

8 The Nature-Nurture Debate: New Evidence and Good News Ragnhild Bang Nes

149


Time Use
9 Time use and Happiness Karma Galay

169


Culture
10 Internalizing the Other–Cross Cultural Understanding in Arts and Education Sharon Lowen

209

11 Role of meditation in promoting happiness Khenpo Phuntsho Tashi

218

12 The Semantic Structure of Gross National Happiness: A View From Conceptual Metaphor Theory Carl Polley

228


Community Vitality
13 Development and (Un)happiness: A case Study from Rural Ethiopia Dena Freeman

241

14 Religious Institution Based Community-hood and Identity of a ‘Muslim Community’ in a ‘Remote’ Rural Village in Bangladesh Mohammed Kamruzzaman

257

15 To Think Like an Island: Three-Capital Model in Pursuing GNH in Taiwan Juju Chin Shou Wang

276

Ecological Diversity and Resilience
16 Institutional Challenges to ‘Patience’ in the Collective Management of Public Goods Ram Fishman

303

17 Status Symbols, Ecosystems and Sustainability Arthur Fishman

331

Good Governance
18 Good Organizational Practice and GNH: A Proposal for Organizational Performance Indicators Anne-Marie Schreven

331

19 Between Earth and Sky: Formal Organizations as Instrument in Creating GNH John Nirenberg

351

20 Do Information and Communication Technologies Further or Hinder Gross National Happiness? Jason Whalley and Kezang

368

21 ICT Key Role in the Economic Development of Haiti: Lessons from Pilot Projects in Rural Haiti and Associated Directions of Contribution to the GNH Index Serge MirandaFrantz Verella, and Tahar Saiah

391

Health
22 A Paradigm Shift in Health Care to Increase GNH Dr Chencho Dorji

413

23 Nature- Deficit Disorder and the Spirit of Wilderness Dave Augeri

436

24 Dynamic Aging Ethel Lowen

456


Education
25 Western Education, Socialization and Individualism Andrie Kusserow

467

26 Gross National Happiness in the Classroom – A Teacher’s Thoughts Meena Srinivasan

480

27 Conceptualising Education for Constitutional Monarchy System: Meiji Japan’s View and Approach Masanori Kakutani

487

28 Schools in Rural Areas and GNH: Endogenous Actions of Small Communities in Japan and Sweden Michiyo Okuma Nystrom

503

Living Standard
29 Shift in the Measure of Quality of Life viz-a-viz Happiness – A Study of Phongmey Gewog and Trashigang Town in Eastern Bhutan Vijay Shrotryia

525

30 Japan’s Paradigm Shift from Growth to Happiness: Slowing Down to Advance Wellbeing Junko Edahiro and Riichiro Oda

548

31 Food Security and Gross National Happiness Akiko Ueda

568

32 Optimal Condition of Happiness: Application of Taguchi Robust Parameter Design on Evidences from India Prabhat Pankaj and Deobra

582

GNH – The Way Forward
33 The Future of Happiness as a National Pursuit Ross MacDonald

613

34 Critical Holism: A New Development Paradigm Inspired by Gross National Happiness? Hans van Willenswaard

632

35 GNH: Changing Views, a Label for Quality Information Nille van Hellemont

672

Contributor’s biography

689