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Overall, in 2010, 8.3% of Bhutanese people are ‘deeply happy’ according to GNH; 32.6% are ‘extensively happy’; 48.7% are ‘narrowly happy’, and 10.4% are ‘unhappy’. These four groups correspond to people who have achieved sufficiency in more than 77%, 66-76%, 50-65%, and less than half of the nine domains, respectively. The 2010 GNH Index uses the middle cutoff. Its value is 0.743 and shows that, overall, 40.9% of Bhutanese are identified as happy (meaning they are extensively or deeply happy), and the remaining 59.1% enjoy sufficiency in 56.6% of the domains on average. Recall that 48.7% of these are already narrowly happy, but are considered not-yet-happy for policy purposes. GNH gradients and indices are reported for each of the 20 districts by gender, by rural-urban areas, and, for illustrative purposes, by age and certain occupational categories.
The analysis has two parts: first, the wellbeing of the people who have been identified as ‘happy’ is examined to show the indicators in which they enjoy sufficiency. Some individual examples are presented to show that the ‘happiest’ people are diverse with respect to age, district, occupation, gender, and sufficiency profiles.
Second, the insufficiencies among those not identified as happy (or not-yet- happy) are examined. The GNH Index value can rise either by increasing the percentage of people who are happy, or the percentage in which not- yet-happy people enjoy sufficiency. This analysis clarifies areas where policy interventions or actions by other institutions could increase GNH. All tables used in this report, together with the survey instrument of questions used in the index and statistical analyses, are presented in the extensive appendices.
Bhutan’s GNH Index is a multidimensional measure and it is linked with a set of policy and programme screening tools so that it has practical applications. The GNH index is built from data drawn from periodic surveys which are representative by district, gender, age, rural-urban residence, etc. Representative sampling allows its results to be decomposed at various sub-national levels, and such disaggregated information can be examined and understood more by organizations and citizens for their uses. In the GNH Index, unlike certain concepts of happiness in current western literature, happiness is itself multidimensional – not measured only by subjective well-being, and not focused narrowly on happiness that begins and ends with oneself and is concerned for and with oneself. The pursuit of happiness is collective, though it can be experienced deeply personally. Different people can be happy in spite of their disparate circumstances and the options for diversity must be wide.
The GNH Index is meant to orient the people and the nation towards happiness, primarily by improving the conditions of not- yet-happy people. We can break apart the GNH Index to see where unhappiness is arising from and for whom. For policy action, the GNH Index enables the government and others to increase GNH in two ways.
This report provides preliminary findings of the 2015 GNH Survey while a full report is being prepared. The Centre for Bhutan Studies and GNH Research (CBS) carried out the survey between January and May 2015 with funding from the Royal Government of Bhutan (RGoB) and Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). The survey is designed to collect data on range of indicators on wellbeing and happiness.
GROSS NATIONAL HAPPINESS: PRACTICE AND MEASUREMENT
Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Gross National Happiness
Edited by Dasho Karma Ura and Dorji Penjore
This publication is the proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Gross National Happiness held in Thimphu, Bhutan, from 24 to 26 November 2008, against the backdrop of the global financial crisis. The conference which attracted 90 participants from 25 countries and five continents was attended by an average of 300 participants and observers. With the theme ‘Practice and Measurement’, the conference could not be held at a better place and time than Bhutan, the birthplace of GNH, and a time when the world is questioning the conventional growth model and its measurement system.
A total of 48 papers were presented. Almost all papers have been categorised to fit into one of the nine domains of Gross National Happiness: i. Psychological Wellbeing; ii. Time Use and Balance; iii. Cultural Diversity and Resilience; iv. Community Vitality; v. Ecological Diversity and Resilience; vi. Good Governance; vii. Health; viii. Education; and ix. Living Standard. Papers related to measuring progress and development of alternative measure of wellbeing (Measurement), and those related to carrying the GNH forward into global network and development of innovative ideas for implementing GNH (The Way Forward) constitute two separate parts.
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TOWARDS GLOBAL TRANSFORMATION
Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Gross National Happiness
This book is a compilation of the papers presented at the Third International Conference on Gross National Happiness held from 22 to 28 November 2007 in Thailand. It was attended by about six hundred participants from academia, NGOs, governments, media, and religious institutions. The Centre would like to thank both the national and international participants for their papers submitted to the conference and helping in further expanding the concept of Gross National Happiness as well as for helping to take steps towards grounding the concept into practice. Only a select few papers are included in this volume due to lack of space.
First Published: 2008
© The Centre for Bhutan Studies
Proceedings of Second International Conference on Gross National Happiness
The papers in this publication were presented at the Second International Conference on Gross National Happiness, which was held from 20 to 24 June 2005 at St. Francis Xavier University in Antigonish, Nova Scotia, Canada. The conference was attended by scholars from various parts of the world. The conference emphasized the exploration of practices and the sharing of actual experiences. It built on the first GNH Conference held in 2004 in Thimphu, Bhutan and carried the subject further by focusing on what may be thought of as “reports from the field” as indicators not necessarily of the state of achievement of Gross National Happiness but of the variety of experiences and experiments “out there” that can orient us in one or another direction as we seek ways to operationalize the concept.
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First Published: 2007
© The Centre for Bhutan Studies
GROSS NATIONAL HAPPINESS AND DEVELOPMENT
Proceedings of the First International Conference on Operationalization of Gross National Happiness
Edited by Karma Ura and Karma Galay
The papers in this publication were presented at the first International Conference on Operationalization of Gross National Happiness, which was held from 18 to 20 February 2004 in Thimphu. The conference was attended by scholars from various parts of the world. They presented papers on a wide range of themes such as culture, religion, economy, environment, development issues and international relations. The Centre for Bhutan Studies would like to thank the authors for their contributions.
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First Published: 2004
© The Centre for Bhutan Studies